History of ISTANBUL
The first historically significant settlement here was founded by a Megarian colonist named Byzas from Greece. Before coming here, he consulted the oracle in Delphi to find a new settlement. The answer was 'opposite the blind'. When Byzas and his small colony came to the Bosphorus in 657 BC, they saw a small colony living on the Asian shore at Chalcedon. They saw the superb natural harbour of the Golden Horn on the European shore and thought 'those people in Chalcedon must be blind'. They called their new settlement 'Byzantium'.
Over the next thousand years, Byzantium became a trade and commerce center. In 324 AD, Constantine I defeated Licinius and became sole ruler of the Roman Empire. He also began to build a new capital at Byzantium, later named Constantinople (Constantine's polis or city). Byzantium submitted willingly to Roman Empire.
In 330 AD, Christianity was declared the official religion of the Roman Empire and Constantinople was dedicated as capital of the Byzantine Empire and splendidly rebuilt by Constantine I.
Constantinople itself was not only the new capital of the Empire but also the symbol of the Christendom. After the death of Constantine in 337, two of his sons, Constantius II and Constans took over the leadership of the empire. Constans, ruler of the western provinces, was, like his father, a Christian. In 341, he decreed that all pre-Christian Graeco Roman worship and sacrifice should cease; warning those who still persisted in practicing ancient Graeco-Roman polytheism with the threat of the death penalty.
Istanbul is famous as one of the most often besieged cities in the world. Before it was conquered by the Turks in 1453, its assailants included the Persian Darius (513 BC), the Athenian Alcibiades (408 BC), the Macedonian Philip II (339 BC), the Arabs (673-78, 717-18 AD), the Bulgarians (813, 913 AD) and the armies of the Fourth Crusade, which twice succeeded in taking the city (1203, 1204 AD). After Constantinople was taken by the Turks, the city became the capital of the Ottoman Empire until 1923, when the newly founded Turkish Republic declared Ankara (then Angora) the capital.
From 1918 until 1923 Great Britain, France and Italy occupied the city.
Under the Ottomans, the city went through several name changes, among them Konstantiniyye, Polis, Stimpol, Estanbul, Istambol and Istanbul. The name was officially changed to Istanbul in 1930.
When the Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923, the capital was moved from Istanbul to Ankara. In the early years of the republic, Istanbul was overlooked in favour of the new capital Ankara but, during the 1950s and 1960s, Istanbul underwent great structural change.
In the 1950s the government of Adnan Menderes sought to develop the country as a whole and new roads and factories were constructed throughout the country. Wide modern roads were built in Istanbul but some, unfortunately, were at the expense of historical buildings within the city.
During the 1970s the population of Istanbul began to rapidly increase as people from Anatolia migrated to the city to find employment in the many new factories that were constructed on the outskirts of the city. This sudden sharp increase in the population caused a rapid rise in housing development (some of poor quality resulting in great death and injury during the frequent earthquakes that hit the city) and many previously outlying villages became engulfed into the greater metropolis of Istanbul. Many Turks who have lived in Istanbul for over 30 or more years can still recollect how areas such as large parts of Maltepe, Kartal, Pendik, and others were green fields when they were young. Other areas such as Tuzla were nothing more than sleepy villages.